MODERNIST THEORIES AND DOGMAS
Throughout the years architect were thinking about new possibilities for the cities and their habitants. They wanted to create comfortable and functional spaces.
Adolf Loos – rejecter ornament.
Futurists- created manifesto; they were thinking about new possibilities for the city.
In France was a new post-war movement – PURISM that took a beginning from Picasso paintings. Purism rejected decorative theme of cubism and returned to clear, ordered forms. The basis of the Purist movement is the work made between 1918 and 1925 by Purism’s founders and leading proponents, Ozenfant and Jeanneret (Le Corbusier), and the work of 1920–25 by their closest colleague, Fernand Léger. Purism evolved as a response to both the artistic and the historic conditions in post–World War I Paris. Realized particularly in painting and architecture, Purism championed a traditional classicism with a formal focus on clean geometries, yet it simultaneously embraced new technologies, new materials, and the machine aesthetic.
Le Corbusier was influenced by many of these thinkers and wanted to apply them to his own practice. He pulled together some parts of those theories and produced his own. He also was influenced by many others, like Taut, Gropius while he was travelling in Europe (Italy, Greece, France and Switzerland).
To understand proportions of the space he created Golden section.
Le Corbusier early experiments are: Maison Fallet 1905-06, Domino Skeleton 1914-1915.
Maison (Villa) Fallet- Le Corbusier wanted to achieve the Swiss style and wanted to use materials and was thinking about their new possibilities.
• Number of innovations
• Free arrange of the facade
• New combinations of windows and walls
• Free plan arrangement
• Very practical
His new designs showed new scale of the spaces, new arrangement and new technology of steel and concrete. Le Corbusier’s Pavillon de l’Esprit Nouveau (Pavilion of the New Spirit), built in 1925 for the International Exposition of Decorative and Industrial Arts in Paris was an experiment and shows this new spatial arrangement.
Le Corbusier created Four Compositions – 1929
Le Corbusier also wrote First use of Five Points of Architecture , which he used in full creating Maison Cook in 1926.
FIRST FIVE POINTS OF ARCHITECTURE
• The piloits (columns)
• The toit-jardin (roof garden)
• The plan libre (free plan)
• The fenetre de longerue (long window of the facade)
• The facade libre (free facade)
Le Corbusier wanted to provide man with a new dwelling which will have an identity of his own.
He was inspired by many thinkers and architects and he saw that the world needs “free plans” and “open forms”. This gave him a new way to find a new language of form. Every architect this day wants to find the great language that will help to create new spaces with new meanings.
The same was in the times of Enlightenment were people were trying to find the meaning for everything and they wanted to understand about the past. I was as well looking at this kind of intellectual change in the society, while writing my thesis “Delight in Eighteenth Century Country Houses designed by Robert Adam”.
The society of the eighteenth century was greatly polite and educated, especially aristocracy. Robert Adam was a great architect that was very successful through changing the whole interiors of the spaces so people could experience it and be delighted. He wanted to satisfy the mind of the society.
To make it possible he had to return to the origins of Greeks and Romans. This was in a great interest of the eighteenth century society. He had to change a classical style and apply his own style. This is a phenomenology of developing possibilities.